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How email works when there is a issue with the receiving mail server.

The way email servers typically work is if a message is sent and user doesn’t exist it will bounce back pretty instantaneous- now if the receiving server is not available the sending server will retry in intervals (i.e. 15 minutes, then 30 minutes, then 1 hour, then 2 hours then 4 hours) at this stage the sender is notified that message has been delayed but sending server will continue to try. Once the sending server has exhausted it efforts to connect to receiving server it will send message back to sender stating “message could not be delivered”.

This information is assuming both sending and receiving servers are configured to normal standards.